Volume No. 6 Issue No.: 2 Page No.: 261-270 Oct-Dec 2011


Assessment of Virulence of Bacterial Flora Associated with Hospital Waste


Mahendra K. Gupta

Department of Botany and Microbiology, St. Aloysius College (Autonomous), Jabalpur (India)


Received on : April 11, 2011




The main objective of the present study was to document the prevailing practices of hospital waste management in five government and three private hospitals of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. A total of seven selective and differential growth media, namely Nutrient Agar Media (NAM), Glutamine Starch Phenol Red (GSP) Agar, Mannitol Salt (MS) Agar, Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Salt Sucrose (TCBS) Agar, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) Agar, Mac Conkey and Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) Agar were used for preliminary identification of the bacterial flora from various samples. The sampling, isolation and characterization of the bacteria were done according to the standard methods. During the study it was observed that all government and private hospitals follow standard color coding scheme for collecting its solid wastes. These hospitals pretreated the plastic wastes, except few small hospitals, while no treatment was given to the other waste. Majority of the hospitals dispose their liquid waste without any treatment. Some government hospitals have their own incinerator while some other hospitals use to send their waste to them. The average rates of wastes generation measured as kg wet weight bed&ndash1d&ndash1 were maximum in government hospital- I, whereas minimum in private hospital-VIII followed by Government hospital-V, IV and III. Bacteria were isolated from these solid and liquid waste samples and upon identification by IMViC and other tests it was revealed that two isolates belonged to Escherichia group while others were found to be Salmonella, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella and Vibrio spp. All the isolates showed catalase activity and amylase activity whereas 05 isolates have gelatinase and only one isolate showed lipase activity. These enzymes have been reported to be potent virulence factors. In blood hemolysis test, four isolates showed â-hemolysis, one isolate showed ã-hemolysis and remaining one isolate showed á-hemolysis. Thus, upon screening their virulence factors, it was observed that majority of bacterial isolates showed â-hemolysis, which are highly pathogenic as they are able to degrade erythrocytes whereas only one isolate found to be á-hemolytic which are considered as partial pathogenic or weak pathogen and also one isolate was observed as ã-hemolytic which is usually not pathogenic but it posses the ability to turn into pathogenic. In antibiotic sensitivity test, different isolates were found to be sensitive, resistant or intermediate against various antibiotics like Amoxycillin (Am), Penicillin-G (P), Furazonidole (F), Ciprofloxacin (C), Gentamycin (G), Erythromycin (E), Chloramphenicol (Cl) and Ampicillin (A). At the end, all seven strains were subjected to DNA electrophoresis in which DNAs were extracted from all the seven isolates and then they were run on agarose gel with reference to standard DNA ladder. By the present work it can be established that bacterial flora of hospital waste is quite pathogenic and can be a source of nosocomial infections or epidemics if left untreated in the environment.


Keywords : Hospital waste, Virulence factors, Antibiotic sensitivity, Pathogenic, Electrophoresis