Volume No. 4 Issue No.: 3 Page No.: 654-666 Jan.-Mar 2010

 

CHROMIUM ACCUMULATION BY PHYTOREMEDIATION WITH MONOCOT WEED PLANT SPECIES AND A HYDROPONIC SAND CULTURE SYSTEM

 

Pantawat Sampanpanish*1,2, Krongkeaw Tippayasak and Pitsamai Chairat-utai3

1. National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (THAILAND)
2. Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (THAILAND)
3. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut’S Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok (THAILAND)

 

Received on : December 22, 2009

 

ABSTRACT

 

The accumulation of chromium by three monocot species Cynodon dactylon, Echinochloa colonum and Vetiveria nemoralis cultivated in a hydroponic sand culture system was investigated in this study. The capacity for chromium removal and the accumulation of chromium in different parts of the three monocot species were studied at concentrations of 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg CrVI/kg of sand for growing periods of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. The results obtained from this study show that the highest accumulation of chromium in Cynodon dactylon occurred at a concentration of 5 mg CrVI/kg of sand after 60 days and equaled 94.59 mg/kg dry weight of plant. For the concentrations of 10 and 15 mg CrVI/kg of sand, chromium accumulations were 47.72 and 459.52 mg/kg dry weight of plant at 30 days, respectively. Cynodon dactylon showed the highest accumulation at the period of 30-60 days but had a tendency toward decreased accumulation levels as harvesting time increased. Echinochloa colonum showed the most accumulation of chromium at 120 days and was equal to 58.22, 90.80, and 246.35 mg/kg dry weight of plant for concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 mg CrVI/kg of sand, respectively. The highest accumulation of chromium in all parts of Vetiveria nemoralis for the concentration of 5 mg CrVI/kg of sand occurred at 90 days and was equal to 49.88 mg/kg dry weight of plant and also equal to 63.02 and 77.83 mg/kg dry weight of plant at 120 days for the concentrations of 10 and 15 mg CrVI/kg of sand, respectively. The results of this study clearly indicate that the highest chromium accumulation in all three monocot species occurred in the root, and that the chromium subsequently translocated to stem and leaf. This process is called phytoextraction or phytoaccumulation and the results show that Cynodon dactylon performed this function better than Echinochloa colonum and Vetiveria nemoralis.

 

Keywords : Chromium, Phytoremediation, Hydroponic, Monocot species, Cynodon dactylon, Echinochioa colonun, Vetiveria nemoralis

 

 

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