Volume No. 11 Issue No.: 1 Page No.: 60-71 July-September 2016

 

IMPACT ON SOIL AND CULTIVATED VEGETATION DUE TO SEWAGE FED IRRIGATION IN BYRAN MANGALA RESERVOIR COMMAND AREA KARNATAKA, INDIA

 

Lokesh K.V.*1, Chandrashekar H.2, Roopa J.3 and Ranganna G.4

1. Department of Civil Engineering, Dr. Ambedkar Institute of Technology, Bangalore (INDIA)
2. Department of Civil Engineering, MEI Polytechnic, Rajajinagar, Bangalore (INDIA)
3. Department of Civil Engineering, M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore (INDIA)
4. Department of Mathematics, Jnanabharathi Campaus, Bangalore University, Bangalore (INDIA)

 

Received on : April 16, 2016

 

ABSTRACT

 

Water is susceptible to get contaminated by any foreign matter and this may either be natural or artificial. Any alteration in the physical, chemical and biological properties of water as well as contamination of any foreign substances leads to health hazard. The polluted natural water resources are hazardous to aquatic life and also to human life. The major sources of water pollution are domestic wastes from urban areas, rural areas and industrial wastes, which are discharged into natural water bodies. Reservoirs and lakes occupy a prominent place in the history of irrigation in South India. Tanks are considered to be useful life saving mechanism in the water scarcity areas which are categorized as Arid and Semi-arid zones. The lakes and reservoirs, all over the country without exception, are in varying degrees of environmental degradation. The degradation is due to encroachments, eutrophication and siltation. There has been a quantum jump in population during the last century without corresponding expansion of civic facilities resulting in deterioration of lakes and reservoirs, especially in urban and semiurban areas becoming sinks for the contaminants. The degradation of reservoir and lake catchments due to deforestation, stone quarrying, sand mining, extensive agricultural use, consequent erosion and increased silt flows have vitiated the quality of water stored in the reservoirs. The study area viz., Byramangala reservoir catchment has an aerial extent of 340 sq.km,and command area of 28 sq.km It is encompassed by East longitude 770 23'45"- 770 34'16"and North latitude 120 45' 00"- 13002' 40"at a distance of about 40 km from Bangalore, India. The aim of the investigation is to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination on vegetation due to irrigation with sewage-fed lake water on agricultural land. Samples of water, soil and crop plants have been analyzed for seven heavy metals, viz., Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results show the presence of some of the heavy metals in vegetables, beyond the limits of Indian Standards. Metal transfer factors from soil to vegetation are found significant for Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. Comparing the results of heavy metals in water, soil and vegetation with their respective natural levels, it is observed that the impact of lake water on vegetation was found to be more than that on soil. The details of the study and results obtained thereof are presented in full length paper.

 

Keywords : Health hazard, Domestic waste, Reservoirs, Water bodies, Environmental degradation

 

 

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