Volume No. 8 Issue No.: 3A Page No.: 676-682 Jan-Mar 2014




Pattanayak B.* and Dhal N. K.

Department of Biotechnology, F.M.University and Department of Environment and Sustainability, CSIR-IMMT, Odisha (INDIA)


Received on : September 20, 2013




The study of plant roots and the diversity of soil microbiota, such as bacteria, fungi and microfauna associated with them are important for understanding the ecological complexities between diverse plants, microbes, soil and climates. Plant-associated bacteria, such as endophytic bacteria (nonpathogenic bacteria that occur naturally in plants) and rhizospheric bacteria (that live on and near the root of plants) have been shown to contribute to biodegradation of toxic organic compounds in contaminated soils and could have potential for improving phytoremediation.The combination of bioaugmentation and phytoremediation, resulting in rhizoremediation, could solve some of the problems encountered during the application of both individual techniques. The inoculation of pollutant degrading bacteria on plant seed can be an important additive to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or bioaugmentation. Genetic engineering of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria for use in plant associated degradation of toxic compounds in soil is considered one of the most promising new technologies for remediation of contaminated environmental sites. We discuss how genetic engineering has been used to develop plants with enhanced efficiencies for phytoextraction and phytovolatilization.Transgenic plants exhibiting biodegradation capabilities of microorganisms bring the promise of an efficient and environmental-friendly technology for cleaning up polluted soils.


Keywords : Phytoremediation, Rhizoremediation, Phytoextraction, Ectomycorrhiza, Heavy metals