Volume No. 8 Issue No.: 2 Page No.: 261-267 Oct - Dec 2013

 

IRON CONTAMINANTS IN GROUND WATER AT KASHMIR VALLEY OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR, INDIA

 

Bhatti Rachna*1, Kanwar Priya and Sharma Vinod2

1. Central Ground Water Board (NHR), Government of India, Dharamsala, J&K, (INDIA)
2. Central Ground Water Board(NWHR), Government of India, Jammu, J&K (INDIA)

 

Received on : August 05, 2013

 

ABSTRACT

 

Trace elements are essential for human health. However, excess concentration of these elements cause health disorders. Iron as is harmless, though sometimes annoying element present in public and private water supplies also forms red oxyhydroxide precipitates that leads to unpalatable tastes, stains laundry and plumbing fixtures and thus becomes an objectionable impurity. Iron is the major contaminant of the ground water in the Kashmir valley (India). The major source of this contamination is geogenic, because of Karewa which occupy the major part of the Kashmir valley. Iron is released into ground water from clays and sands of aquifers. Generally, ground water from deep tube wells contains iron where aquifers are rich in iron carbonates and iron sulphates. Iron content in the exploratory wells drilled by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) in the Kashmir valley is quite high (>14 mg/l). Iron with high contents of gases is also observed at Pattan in Baramula district. The most common form of iron in solution in ground water is the ferrous ion (Fe+2). A criterion level of 0.3 mg/l Fe (total iron) has been proposed for drinking purposes and for protection of the aquatic environment by Bureau of Indian Standard. Soluble iron can be removed by a reverse osmosis process which is a very costly affair and economically infeasible, particularly for community water supply. The simplest iron removal plant unit has been developed by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI) and is referred as, Domestic Iron Removal Unit (DIRU) suitable for rural purposes and can be built form locally available skill. Also HCAC and ACLP can also be used for removal of Iron from water. Present paper depicts occurrence of excess iron in ground water samples collected from deep aquifers in 21 exploratory wells drilled by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) in the Kashmir valley.

 

Keywords : ACLP, Aquifer, BIS norms, DIRU, EW, Geogenic, HCAC, Iron, Karewa

 

 

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