Volume No. 10 Issue No.: 2 Page No.: 353-359 October-December 2015

 

CLIMATE CHANGE AND COASTAL ECO-SYSTEM

 

Arul A. I.and Arul C.

1. Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Chennai (INDIA) 2. Centre for Water Resources, Anna University, Chennai (INDIA)

 

Received on : June 09, 2015

 

ABSTRACT

 

Climate change is basically the global phenomena of temperature rise, glacier melt and sea level rise. The significant change in climate has taken place after the start of industrialization in 1751 due to the use of fossil fuels which has thickened the greenhouse layer increasing CO2 concentration from 280 ppm to 400 ppm. Within the last one century (1906-2005), the average surface temperature of the Earth has risen by 0.74oC. The regional phenomena such as floods, droughts and tropical storms also get influenced and aggravated due to the change in climate. Oceans take in nearly one-third of the annual total anthropogenic carbon emissions. This leads to reduction in alkaline property of oceans and it is called ocean acidification. And this is the cause of coral bleaching and decrease in creatures with shells requiring calcification. In 1998, increase in ocean temperature corresponding to an El Niņo led to coral bleaching in different locations in the Indian Ocean. Rising temperature and improper methods of fishing had resulted in diminished fish catch. With the rising sea levels, the island nation of the Maldives having a population of 4 lakh is an icon of climate change as the highest point in the entire nation is just under 8 feet (about 2.4 metres) above sea level. The Indian peninsula has a vast coastline of 7,518 km. Some places in Puri district of the Odisha State of India and the Sundarbans delta of West Bengal/Bangladesh are two icons of climate change. Sea ingression continuously swallows land or makes land uncultivable (saline) for the next three years. In some places in Puri district, about 15 km of land is lost to the sea in the last 50 years. Added to it is that half of mangroves in Odisha is lost in last 25 years. In the Sundarbans, islands get submerged due to the increasing sea level. Men are driven out of farming and fishing. This paper covers various aspects of coastal eco-system vis-ā-vis climate change.

 

Keywords : Coastal environment, Climate change, Greenhouse gases, Sea level rise, Glacier melt

 

 

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