Volume No. 9 Issue No.: 4 Page No.: 1176-1188 April-June 2015

 

AIR POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN LUCKNOW CITY, INDIA : A REVIEW

 

Verma A. K., Saxena A.1, Khan A. H.* and Sharma G. D.2

1. Faculty of Civil Engineering, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow (INDIA) 2. CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, M. G. Road, Lucknow (INDIA)

 

Received on : December 25, 2014

 

ABSTRACT

 

Urban air pollution is one of the major environmental problems faced by the developing countries. Studies in large Indian cities revealed that ambient air pollution concentrations are at such levels where it can cause serious health impacts. Lucknow, a fast growing city is not an exception to this. Researchers from the city have studied various aspects of air pollution during the last one and half decades, identified particulate matter as the main air pollutant in city. A few studies of indoor environment in households due to various type of fuels used in cooking from urban and nearby rural areas have also identified particulates and associated PAHs as major indoor air pollutant. The objective of this review article is to analyze the air pollution status of city, associated environmental and health impacts and possible control measures presented in studies on Lucknow from the available literature. Particulate fractions viz.; PM2.5, PM10 and SPM were reported to be exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) limits in most of the studies but oxides of sulphur and nitrogen (SO2 and NOx) were within the limit of 80 ?g/m3. Lack of dispersion of pollutants in winter season was reported to be the main reason for highest air pollution during this season and minimum in monsoon due to washout by rains. Commercial areas with high traffic volume recorded higher air pollution levels than residential and industrial areas with low traffic density. Vehicular traffic was identified the major source of air pollution in the city. Air pollution level at control site (village or low traffic density area) was lower than other urban sites. Particulates and associated toxic chemicals (metals and PAHs) and gaseous pollutants have found to be toxic to human and plants in Lucknow. The exposure of these pollutants is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neurological impairments, increased risk of preterm birth and even mortality and morbidity. A few studies focusing roadside air pollution have shown high air pollution concentration as well as adverse impact on chlorophyll content of roadside plants. Authorities have been sensitized from the findings of these studies and initiated measures to control vehicular pollution, create awareness and better control of traffic by traffic police. However the efforts made so far are inadequate to maintain good air quality. In view of the rapid growth of Lucknow city in term of area, population and number of registered vehicles, planning and implementation of suitable air pollution control measures are necessary to protect the health of its citizens.

 

Keywords : Air pollution, Health effects, Control measures, Economic development, Cardiovascular

 

 

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