Volume No. 8 Issue No.: 1 Page No.: 1-10 Jul-Sept. 2013

 

STUDY OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE WATER QUALITY AMONG DIFFERENT GHATS OF RIVER GANGA , KANPUR, INDIA

 

Khatoon Naseema*, Rehman Masihur1 and Khan Altaf Husain2

1. Department of Chemistry, Integral University, Dasauli, Kursi Road, Lucknow (INDIA)
2. Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow (INDIA)

 

Received on : April 05, 2013

 

ABSTRACT

 

In the present analysis, seasonal variation of Physico-chemical parameters of river Ganga at Kanpur, India were studied. Samples for one year study (2010-11) were collected from six ghats of the river Ganga located in Kanpur city. The collected samples were analyzed for different Physico-chemical parameters viz.; temperature, pH, Total Alkalinity (TA), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Chlorides, Electric Conductivity (EC), Nitrate, Phosphate, Magnesium and with respect to Chromium metal contamination. The maximum water temperature was recorded in summer season and lowest in winter season. The maximum and minimum pH was recorded as 8.70.8 and 7.380.22 in winter and monsoon respectively. The maximum values of TA and DO were 324.59.7 and 13.2 1.1 mg/l in winter while respective minimum values were 261.519.88 and 4.311.25 mg/l in monsoon. Similarly maximum and minimum EC was recorded as 416.521.76 and 22326.72 ?s/cm in monsoon and winter respectively. The maximum TDS (278.523.34) and BOD (29.124.58 mg/l) were recorded in monsoon and minimum TDS (150.753.59 mg/l) and BOD (2.90.40 mg/l) were recorded in winter season. The low values of DO have adversely affected potability of water in Siddhnath ghat. Alarming depletion of DO level in river water is an indication of disposal of industrial effluent, tannery effluent and untreated sewage. The high concentration of chromium metal was observed in summer (4.471.85 mg/l) at Siddhnath ghat, while lower concentration was observed in winter (0.039 0.02 mg/l) at Bithoor ghat. The deterioration in water quality of the river, majorly due to tannery effluent and immersion of idol and Tazias, can be observed from Bithoor ghat upstream of Kanpur city to Siddhnath ghat at Jajmau downstream of Kanpur. The results were compared with the WHO surface water quality standards. The observed values of major parameters were slightly higher than the WHO limits. Therefore the observed water quality suggests that the water could not be used for drinking and bathing purposes. It could only be used for irrigation after suitable treatment.

 

Keywords : Physico-Chemical Parameter, BOD, TDS, WHO, Contamination

 

 

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